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Research and publication ethics

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GENERAL GUIDELINES

Manuscripts should follow the ethical guidelines specified in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (www.icmje.org). For matters not covered in the ICMJE guidelines, authors should refer to "Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals" (from the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors, KAMJE; see http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html) or "Guidelines on Good Publication" (from the Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE; see http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines).

DISCLOSURE OF CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

A conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), a reviewer, or an editor has financial relationships (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony) or personal relationships that inappropriately influence his or her actions (http://icmje.org/ethical_4conflicts.html). Authors should fully disclose any such relationships on the title page of the manuscript.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

Studies with human or animal subjects must be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975 (last updated in 2008, see http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html), and authors must include a statement about this in the manuscript. For studies with human participants, a statement concerning IRB approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section. Articles that do not meet these requirements will be rejected. Manuscripts should under no circumstances include identifying information such as the patients' names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, and other protected healthcare information. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, February 2006. On occasion, the Editor-in-Chief may request a copy of the approved IRB application from the author(s).

REGISTRATION OF CLINICAL TRIALS

Clinical trials should be registered with primary national clinical trial registries such as Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), other primary national registries accredited by the World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/) or clinicaltrial.gov (http://clinicaltrial.gov/).

AUTHORSHIP

To be listed as an author, an individual must meet the following four criteria: 1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; 2) contributed to drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) provided final approval of the version to be published; and 4) agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All individuals who do not meet the above criteria but have contributed to the article should be listed in the Acknowledgments section (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf).

ORIGINALITY AND DUPLICATE PUBLICATION

Submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be under consideration by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. Accepted manuscripts should not be duplicated in whole or in part in any other scientific journal without permission from the Editorial Board. If duplicate publications related to the papers of this journal or plagiarism are detected, the journal may take action against the authors, which may range from requesting their institutions to assess the facts or asking the Editor-in-Chief of the counterpart journal to acknowledge the error and retract the paper, to banning the authors from publishing in PAN for up to 3 years. The final sanction against the author(s) may be discussed in the Editorial Board meeting.

EMBARGO POLICY

All contents of an accepted article must be strictly confidential and may not appear in the media, either in print or electronic form, before the article's embargo date. All authors and funding institutions should adhere to this policy and should not distribute the results of their work prior to the embargo date. If an embargo break is the result of any action by an author, he/she risks the withdrawal of the accepted article. Violations of the embargo policy may also jeopardize future acceptance of the author’s manuscripts in PAN. Generally, embargoes on journal articles are lifted the day and the time the article is published by PAN, either online or in print (whichever comes first).

SECONDARY PUBLICATION

Manuscripts may be republished if they satisfy the conditions laid down by the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf).

PROCESS FOR MANAGING RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION MISCONDUCT

Suspected cases of research and publication misconduct—such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, authorship issues, undisclosed conflicts of interest, ethical issues in the submitted manuscript, reviewer misconduct, or complaints against editors—will be resolved by the Editorial Board as per the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).



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