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Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry 2011;15(1):1-10.
Invite Review : Brain Activation via Exercise: Exercise conditions Leading to neuronal activation & hippocampal neurogenesis
Abstract
The brain is considered to be an organ which can be affected by conditioning or exercise, just like muscles. Exercise activates the brain and enhances several neuronal functions and may lead to several neuronal plastic changes. Neuronal c-Fos accumulation in any hypothalamic nuclei increased only with supra-LT exercise, revealing a LT-like activation pattern. In the brain stem, both supra-LT and below-LT exercise activated the VLM and NTS. In case of hippocampus, its activation was induced by under-LT exercise, which increased regional blood flow through neurovascular coupling. Thus, we found that regions of brain activation were determined differently based on exercise intensity. In the further, more research on exercise intensive is indispensable. In this paper, we reviewed: (1) Hippocampal plasticity through exercise (2) Brain region-specific differential activation patterns with exercise below and above the lactate threshold (3) Hippocampal neuronal activity induced by mild exercise below the lactate threshold: regional blood flow monitoring in the hippocampus (4) Acute mild exercise induces BDNF and short-term training causes AHN (5) Why below-LT exercise is sufficient for hippocampal plasticity (6) Hippocampal activation mechanism during exercise. In particular, based on our recent findings, our focus was directed upon exercise-induced brain activation and neurogenesis.
Key Words: Brain, Exercise, LT, Neuronal activation, Neurogensis
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