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Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry 2004;8(3):317-322.
Articles : Effect of Swimming on Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Rats
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming on nitric oxide synthase expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The male SD rats weighing 250±10 g (6 weeks old) were used in the experiment. In the first part of the experiment (involving session duration-dependence swimming), the rats were divided into five groups to investigate an optimum duration of swimming exercise for the prevention of the NO-dependent neuronal damage: control group, 1-min-swimming group, 5-min-swimming group, 10-min-swimming group, and 20-min-swimming group (n = 10 in each group). In the second part of the experiment (involving training duration-dependence swimming), the rats were divided into five groups: control group to investigate an optimum program of swimming training for the prevention of the NO-dependent neuronal damage, I-day-swimming group, 3-day-swimming group, 7-day-swimming group, and 14-day-swimming group (n = 10 in each group). The rats in the session duration-dependence swimming groups were made to swim for 1 min, 5 min, 10 min, and 20 min once a day for 3 consecutive days, respectively. The rats in the program duration-dependence swimming groups were made to for 10 min once a day for 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days, respectively. The swimming apparatus consisted of a swimming pool with 60 cm in height and 120 cm in diameter, which was filled with water at a temperature of 30-32℃ up to 45 cm from the bottom. With respect to the session-duration-dependence swimming groups. the two swimming groups of 10 min or longer duration significantly decreased the number of NADPH-d-positive cells in the dentate gyrus compared to either the control group (p = 0.001) or the I -min swimming group (p = 0.001) or the 5-min swimming group (p = ??). With respect to the program-duration swimming groups, all the swimming groups regardless of its training frequencies had significantly decreased NADPH-d-positive cells in the dentate gyrus compared to the control group (p = 0.03). In conclusion, these results of the current study suggest that a single bout of swimming lasting longer than 10 min, regardless of its frequency, may be an effective means for the prevention of NO-dependent neuronal damage.
Key Words: swimming, nitric oxide, dentate gyms, neuronal damage


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