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Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry 1999;3(1):1-16.
A Review on Iron Intake in Elite Players
ron is an element to build hemoglobin (Hb) in the blood, and the functional element of enzymes such as Mb, cytochrome, catalase, and perixodase in muscles. Iron is an important material in sustaining oxygen transport system and supporting cell function. Mb transfers oxygen to a place where ATP produced. Aerobic metabolism requires oxygen and the oxygen is transferred by Hb. A majority of the iron combines with various elements in the body. Iron exists as heme and nonheme. Non-heme iron includes ferritin, hemosiderin, lactoferrin, transferring, phosphate compounds, carbohydrate, and heme iron includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochtome C. The majority of heme iron can be absorb as Hb and Mb, and its absorption rate is very high without disturbances. But the absorption of non-heme can be affected by other factors. Exercise induced anemia can occur by the depletion of serum iron and iron in the body. The causes of iron depletion in the body are reduction of food consumption, menstruation, abrupt growth, and reduction of meat consumption. However, the rate of anemia episodes in male are low, and iron requirements are low. The average man can have anemia and Hb urine. Iron depletion in the body can lead reduction of oxidation in the body. It is reported that the iron depletion can impair the physical performance and deliver tiredness and was by reducing th ability of oxygen transport. Also, it can happen when the iron absorption is lower than iron loss brealdng the iron balance. Iron loss can occur by mucos membranate, blood loss, and feces, about 0.6㎎, by skin cell and sweat about 0.2-0.3㎎, and urine about 0.1 ㎎ in a day. The iron absorption can affect by iron content in food, biochemical availability, iron storage, and red cell production rate. Non-heme by food consumption consists of basic iron, and vegetable and dairy products contains this. Heme iron is contained in meat, poultry, and fish. Iron absorption rate by food consumption is about 10% and ten folds of this is needed to meat the requirement. Hb intercepts oxygen in the lung, and transfer oxygen through the blood stream to muscle cell where it can be stored by Mb. Cytochrome can use oxygen to break down energy substrate for muscle contraction. It is reported that iron depletion can impair endurance performance and cause elevated lactic acid production in an average man. On the other hand, some others report its influence on V^·O_2max and endurance performance is not obvious. However, reports suggest that iron supplements are beneficial in iron depleted athletes.
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