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Phys Act Nutr > Volume 24(3); 2020 > Article
Physical Activity and Nutrition 2020;24(3):13-18.
DOI:    Published online September 30, 2020.
The effect of eleutherococcus senticosus on metabolism-associated protein expression in 3T3-L1 and C2C12 cells
Takeshi Hashimoto1, Yoko Okada1, Atsushi Yamanaka2, Natsuhiko Ono2, Keisuke Uryu2, Isafumi Maru2
1Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan
2Bizen Chemical Co., Ltd., Akaiwa, Okayama, Japan
Correspondence:  Takeshi Hashimoto, Tel: +81-77-599-4134, Fax: +81-77-599-4134, 
Received: 29 August 2020   • Revised: 16 September 2020   • Accepted: 16 September 2020
In vivo studies have demonstrated the ergogenic benefits of eleutherococcus senticosus (ES) supplementation. ES has been observed to enhance endurance capacity, improve cardiovascular function, and alter metabolic functions (e.g., increased fat utilization); however, the exact mechanisms involved remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether ES could effectively induce fat loss and improve muscle metabolic profiles through increases in lipolysis- and lipid metabolism-associated protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, respectively, to uncover the direct effects of ES on adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells.
Different doses of ES extracts (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL) were added to cells (0.2 ES, 0.5 ES, and 1.0 ES, respectively) for 72 h and compared to the vehicle control (control).
The intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) content significantly decreased (p < 0.05 for 0.2 ES, p < 0.01 for 0.5 ES and 1.0 ES) in 3T3-L1 cells. Adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in active lipolysis, was significantly higher in the 1.0 ES group than in the control group (p < 0.01) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In C2C12 cells, the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) was significantly increased in the 1.0 ES group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that 1.0 ES activated both 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in skeletal muscle cells (p < 0.01).
These findings suggest that ES extracts decreased TG content, presumably by increasing lipase in adipocytes and metabolism-associated protein expression as well as mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells. These effects may corroborate previous in vivo findings regarding the ergogenic effects of ES supplementation.
Key Words: adipocytes, skeletal muscle, exercise, AMPK, mitochondria, lipolysis, lipogenesis


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